The quality of medical services and the health of patients can be guaranteed when the doctors are healthy. In this study, we used the data from the 2016 Korean Physician Survey and analyzed the relationship of lifestyle, stress, and chronic diseases status with the self-rated health of Korean doctors. Among 7,631 doctors in Korea, 2,336 (30.6%) reported their self-rated health as ‘good’, 4,462 (58.5%) as ‘moderate’, and 833 (10.9%) as ‘bad’. The multinominal logistic regression analysis, showed that factors related to the self-rated health were age, type of healthcare facility, smoking, exercise, sleep duration, stress, and chronic diseases status. Since doctors’ lifestyle, stress, and chronic disease status were closely related to their self-rated health, it is imperative to prepare measures to protect doctors’ health in an intensive medical environment, where too many patients require treatment, due to the characteristics of the medical system in Korea.